dinsdag 1 juni 2010

Achtergronden Gaza blokkade en maritiem recht


Israel staat wel in haar recht lijkt me, maar dat wil niet zeggen dat het ook verstandig was. Ik begrijp niet goed waarom men (zoals men zelf toegeeft) niet voorbereid was op het gewelddadige verzet van de moslimactivisten op het Turkse schip, dat was georganiseerd door het extremistische IHH dat banden heeft met Al Qaida en Hamas.
 
Dat alles laat onverlet dat een en ander is uitgelokt door deze activisten, die immers de herhaaldelijke waarschuwingen van Israel negeerden en vervolgens grof geweld gebruikten tegen de soldaten. Het valt zeer te hopen dat de EU en de individuele lidstaten in staat zijn onderscheid te maken tussen de gewelddadige extremisten op het Turkse schip, die hier waarschijnlijk op uit waren en voor wie het martelarenschap het hoogste doel is, en de vreedzame activisten op de andere boten, die overigens wel weinig problemen lijken te hebben met de extremisten en ook met het Hamas bewind in de Gazastrook en waar die organisatie voor staat...
 
RP
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The Gaza flotilla and the maritime blockade of Gaza - Legal background from the Foreign Ministry

Ministry of Foreign Affairs 31 May 2010  - distributed May 31, 2010 5:18 PM

A maritime blockade is in effect off the coast of Gaza. It has been imposed, as Israel is currently in a state of armed conflict with the Hamas regime that controls Gaza.


1. A maritime blockade is in effect off the coast of Gaza. Such blockade has been imposed, as Israel is currently in a state of armed conflict with the Hamas regime that controls Gaza, which has repeatedly bombed civilian targets in Israel with weapons that have been smuggled into Gaza via the sea.

2. Maritime blockades are a legitimate and recognized measure under international law that may be implemented as part of an armed conflict at sea.

3. A  blockade may be imposed at sea, including in international waters, so long as it does not bar access to the ports and coasts of neutral states.

4. The naval manuals of several western countries, including the US and England recognize the maritime blockade as an effective naval measure and set forth the various criteria that make a blockade valid, including the requirement of give due notice of the existence of the blockade.

5. In this vein, it should be noted that Israel publicized the existence of the blockade and the precise coordinates of such by means of the accepted international professional maritime channels. Israel also provided appropriate notification to the affected governments and to the organizers of the Gaza protest flotilla.  Moreover, in real time, the ships participating in the protest flotilla were warned repeatedly that a maritime blockade is in effect.

6. Here, it should be noted that under customary law, knowledge of the blockade may be presumed once a blockade has been declared and appropriate notification has been granted, as above.

7. Under international maritime law, when a maritime blockade is in effect, no boats can enter the blockaded area.  That includes both civilian and enemy vessels.
 
8. A state may take action to enforce a blockade. Any vessel that violates or attempts to violate a maritime blockade may be captured or even attacked under international law. The US Commander's Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations sets forth that a vessel is considered to be in attempt to breach a blockade from the time the vessel leaves its port with the intention of evading the blockade.

9. Here we should note that the protesters indicated their clear intention to violate the blockade by means of written and oral statements. Moreover, the route of these vessels indicated their clear intention to violate the blockade in violation of international law.

10. Given the protesters explicit intention to violate the naval blockade, Israel exercised its right under international law to enforce the blockade. It should be noted that prior to undertaking enforcement measures, explicit warnings were relayed directly to the captains of the vessels, expressing Israel's intent to exercise its right to inforce the blockade.

11. Israel had attempted to take control of the vessels participating in the flotilla by peaceful means and in an orderly fashion in order to enforce the blockade. Given the large number of vessels participating in the flotilla, an operational decision was made to undertake measures to enforce the blockade a certain distance from the area of the blockade.

12. Israeli personnel attempting to enforce the blockade were met with violence by the protesters and acted in self defense to fend off such attacks.
 

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