woensdag 25 mei 2011

Deling van Jeruzalem leidt tot bizarre situaties (zoals Beit Safafa)

Je krijgt rare dingen als je in en rond Jeruzalem (en elders) terug wil gaan naar de grenzen (wapenstilstandslijnen) van voor 1967, zoals blijkt uit onderstaand relaas van Yaacov Lozowick.
Natuurlijk moet Jeruzalem gedeeld (en wellicht verdeeld) worden om vrede mogelijk te maken, maar zeker niet precies langs de oude lijnen.
Betreffende de rechtmatigheid van zowel Joden en Israeli's (of ook niet-Joden en niet-Israeli's, bijv. een niet-Joodse Nederlander die we in Ariel hebben ontmoet) tegenover Palestijnse Arabieren (misschien ook niet-Palestijnen en niet-Arabieren) om over de Groene Lijn te gaan wonen na 1967: men zou wellicht kunnen argumenteren dat Israel als soeverein land toeliet dat mensen van de Westoever aan de 'Israelische' kant van de vroegere wapenstilstandslijn kwamen wonen, en de Palestijnen geen inspraak hadden wie er vanuit Israel naar hun kant overstak, maar dat lijkt ook problematisch. Na de annexatie van Oost-Jeruzalem bestond dit onderscheid voor de Israelische autoriteiten formeel niet meer, en als men Arabieren uit de Westoever had geweigerd had de internationale gemeenschap waarschijnlijk moord en brand geschreeuwd. Er is al genoeg kritiek op (werkelijke en vermeende) discriminatie van Arabieren die in Jeruzalem wonen of zich daar willen vestigen. Men zou er goed aan doen (van beide kanten) de situatie niet te willen terugdraaien naar 40, 60 of 100 jaar geleden, maar te kijken hoe men nu en in de toekomst zo goed mogelijk als buren kan leven en recht te doen aan ieders wensen en belangen.

Don't Divide Jerusalem: The Curious Case of Beit Safafa


A century ago Beit Safafa was a village in the hills north of Bethlehem and south of Jerusalem. By the time the British Mandate ended, in 1948, the southern neighborhoods of Jerusalem could be seen on the slopes to the north of the village. When the war of 1948 was over, there was an armistice line running straight through the village, the northern part lying in Israel, the southern part in Jordan. Over the next decade or so, the fields between the village and Jerusalem filled with the neighborhoods of Katamonim, populated mostly by Jewish refugees from Arab countries; eventually the Jewish homes of Pat were erected right next to the Arab homes of northern Beit Safafa.

Beschrijving: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-qD8SAmqL018/TdpRaG2oy-I/AAAAAAAAAZ0/yU5nH7-ZA9U/s400/P4180774.JPG

Pat on the right, Beit Safafa on the left.

During this period the border was sealed. Family members living a stone's throw apart could shout to each other, but never meet, never break bread together, never share family events.

In 1967 the Israelis occupied the West Bank and annexed East Jerusalem. Beit Safafa was united. The villagers were united, too, and over the coming years they multiplied and moved, some crossing the old and forgotten line into the Israeli part, some building larger homes on the hill to the south, which, I remember, used to be mostly empty and now no longer is.

Beschrijving: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-oJi9EH7oC-A/TdpRXhENSjI/AAAAAAAAAZw/BtPGkHZwiGw/s400/P4180771.JPG

Of course, if you know Jerusalem, you'll recognize that the neighborhood on the top of the hill is Gilo, which much of the world calls a settlement since it was populated by Israeli citizens beyond the line of 1949-67. The odd thing is that in all the endless verbiage on the matter, no-one (NO ONE) ever calls the Israeli Arabs from Beit Safafa who moved in the same direction, settlers. Yet it can't be that Jewish Israeli citizens who crossed the Green Line to settle are illegally forbidden settlers, while the Arab Israeli citizens who did the exact same thing are not. That would make international law explicitly racist and antisemitic, and for all its silliness, it isn't those.

(If we're splitting logic, by the way, it would be interesting to know how American or Russian or French citizens who moved to the area after 1967 can be regarded as internationally forbidden. Merely because many of them took on Israeli citizenship along the way? And if they didn't? Say some of them retained their original citizenship and never acquired Israeli citizenship: are they also forbidden by international law? There are such people, you know. I recognize this sounds silly, but so does the entire construct if you think about it long enough or observe its details close up).

In the decades since 1967 thousands of Israeli Arabs from elsewhere - Nazerath, Jaffa, Sachnin and so on - have moved to Jerusalem. It's a big city, it's got the country's largest university, it's got hospitals, government ministries, and all sorts of other things to encourage migration. Some of them have moved to Beit Hakerem or Rehavia, and that's all right. Others have moved to Beit Hanina, a wealthy area on the city's north side, so they're clearly legally forbidden settlers. Some have moved to Beit Safafa, because it's the one part of town that already had a community of Israeli Arabs and it felt hospitable. Of course, if they moved to the northern part of the neighborhood (it has long since ceased to be a separate village), no problem. If they moved to the southern part however, they're illegal settlers, as we've already seen. The thing is, when you walk through the neighborhood, there's no way of recognizing which it is, unless you happen to be old enough or savvy enough to remember where the long-defunct line ran. Most people aren't. Most people, that is, except for the teeming millions who know that Jerusalem must be divided.

Beschrijving: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-jR_7mN4EhqY/TdpRj-1lMdI/AAAAAAAAAaE/kKTzKbq6HMo/s400/P4180769.JPG

Beschrijving: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-0P5cqHVZxbc/TdpRe7MFLzI/AAAAAAAAAZ8/T2ASTWED-vw/s400/P4180776.JPG

So let's get this straight. According to conventional wisdom, the buildings in the forefront of the picture below remain in Israel no mater what, since their denizens are inside the Green line and they're Israeli citizens anyway, except for the ones who aren't. The buildings in the center of the picture must become part of Palestine, since their denizens are outside the Green Line and they're not Israeli citizens, except for the ones who are. Then the buildings on the top of the hill, at the back of the picture, they will remain in Israel since they're part of the Jewish neighborhoods constructed since 1967 which will not be dismantled since there are more than 200,000 people living in them. Of course, the line between the two parts of Beit Safafa doesn't exist on the ground, and in some cases runs through homes constructed since 1967, and the line between Jews and Arabs near the top of the hill runs along garden fences and between parking places on common roads, but hey, don't confuse us with such minutiae.

Beschrijving: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-aoG4XFpQM34/TdpRha_LoaI/AAAAAAAAAaA/1gXXHN0XJcE/s400/P4180777.JPG

So now we've got the following situation. There are about 8,000 people in Beit Safafa. Some have been Israeli citizens since 1948, but they'll move or stay depending upon where they live now. Some have become Israeli citizens since 1967, but that's immaterial. If they're Arab (they are), and they live south of the Green Line (many do), they obviously yearn to live in a free Palestine, not Israel. No? Some are not Israeli citizens, merely permanent residents, but if they live north of the line, they can stay put, or move to Haifa, or move 25 feet to the south, and thus choose to live in whichever country they prefer. And then of course there are the non-Israeli citizens who moved in 1974, or 1983, or 1992, or 2001, or whenever it was, to Haifa or Kfar Kassem or elsewhere in Israel, and they won't be affected in any case, since they're inside the Green Line and thus impervious to the entire discussion. It's only Jews who are on the wrong side of the line who need to do any explaining or accommodating.

In case you're skeptical that anyone would really consider drawing all those lines,
here's the map as it appears on the website of the Geneva Initiative. I'm not making up any of this.

Beschrijving: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-rFVWkhX0D7g/Tdpe0qqCBnI/AAAAAAAAAaI/Myb7y-WSmmg/s400/Geneva_Gilo_Beit+Safafa.jpg

Post script: My friend Sami (false name), who lives elsewhere in East Jerusalem, tells me many of his neighbors are envious of the Beit Safafians: "They or their cousins have been in Israel since 1948, and they know how to navigate the system in a way the rest of us don't always know."



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